Climate of Assam: A Complete Article with Important MCQ

Assam is a northeastern state of India, located south of the eastern Himalayas. It is one of the Eight Sister states of North-Eastern India. Assam is known for its rich culture, diverse population, tea plantations, and silk production. The state capital is Dispur, and its largest city is Guwahati. Assam is divided into 31 Districts. In this article, we will know the Climate of Assam and also know the seasons, temperature, and Rainfall of Assam.

CLIMATE OF ASSAM
CLIMATE OF ASSAM

The one-horned rhinoceros is a source of great pride for the people of this state. This magnificent animal is a symbol of the state’s rich biodiversity with the majority residing in the Kaziranga National Park.

Assam’s economy largely depends on agriculture, with tea being a major cash crop. Assam alone produces 50% of total India’s tea production. The estimated annual average production of Assam tea leaves is about 630- 700 million kg.

Also Read : Assam – Overview, Geography, Culture, Districts and Symbols

What is Climate?

Climate refers to the long-term weather patterns observed in a specific geographic area. Weather can vary from hour to hour, day to day, month to month, or even year to year, but, climate represents the long-term average conditions. By examining a region’s weather patterns consistently over a span of at least 30 years, we can determine and define its climate.

Climate of Assam:

Assam experiences a “tropical monsoon rainfall climate” characterized by high humidity and substantial precipitation. The region enjoys a moderate climate year-round, with warm summers and mild winters.

The monsoons are a crucial source of water for Assam, sustaining a biodiversity that rivals equatorial rainforests. The warm and humid climate, combined with the region’s topography, provides an ideal environment for plant and vegetation growth. 

During the monsoon season, Assam’s natural beauty flourishes as heavy rainfall brings the landscape to life. There are regional variations in climate, with the plains exhibiting a tropical climate with high humidity, while the hills have a sub-alpine climate.

Seasons in Assam:

Assam has four distinct seasons: summer, monsoon, autumn, and winter. The winter season, from October to April, is considered the best time to visit Assam and coincides with the festive season in the state.

Let’s explore more details about the weather and climate of Assam.

Summers:

Assam’s summer season lasts from March to the end of June, characterized by high humidity and frequent showers. The average temperature during this period ranges between 35 and 38 degrees Celsius (95-100 degrees Fahrenheit). Even during the hottest months, the mercury rarely exceeds 38 degrees Celsius. Light cotton clothing is recommended to cope with the heat and humidity during summer.

Monsoons:

The monsoon season provides respite from the summer heat. The neighboring areas of Cherapunji and Mawsynram hold the record for the highest rainfall in the world. Assam receives an average annual rainfall of around 70 inches in the west and 120 inches in the east. Afternoon thunderstorms, locally known as Bordoicila, are common during this season. The entire state is covered in lush greenery, transforming it into a picturesque landscape.

Winters:

Assam’s winter season, from November to February, is characterized by light rainfall and misty mornings and afternoons. The temperature during this time ranges from 6 to 8 degrees Celsius (43-46 degrees Fahrenheit). It is the ideal time to visit Assam, as the weather is pleasant and conducive to exploration.

Spring and Autumn:

Spring (March-April) and autumn (September-October) in Assam offer pleasant weather with moderate temperatures and rainfall. These seasons are popular among tourists as they provide a comfortable climate for outdoor activities. As the temperatures are neither too cold nor too hot, there is no need for any specific type of clothing during these seasons. If you are planning a trip to Assam, spring and autumn are favorable options.

Temperature In Assam

Assam experiences a temperature range of 6°C to 38°C. Assam has an average temperature of around 36°C. The temperature is typically at its highest during August, while January experiences the lowest temperatures, which can drop to around 6°C. Assam receives some rainfall during this period from the Norwesters, which helps maintain lower temperatures in spring.

In the plains of Assam, the maximum temperature does not exceed 90°F (32°C), while winter temperatures can drop to around 8°C (47°F). The summer season in the plains and sub-montane region can be unpleasant due to the extreme humidity accompanying the monsoon. Although the summer temperatures in the plains, including the district of Cachar, may reach only around 32°C, the high humidity causes discomfort and excessive perspiration, particularly between rainfall episodes.

Also Read: 700+ Most Important Assam History MCQ With Answer

Rainfall in Assam

The annual rainfall of Assam ranks among the highest in India. because this state receives significant humidity from the southwest monsoons, resulting in an average annual rainfall of over 120 inches in the Brahmaputra valley and surrounding areas. With 51 different forest and sub-forest types, Assam boasts a diverse range of vegetation patterns.

From a climatic perspective, the year in Assam can be broadly divided into two main seasons: the cold season and the rainy season. Additionally, there are two transitional short seasons, namely spring and autumn, marking the transitions between the cold and rainy seasons.

The cold season lasts from mid-November to mid-February, characterized by clear skies and temperatures falling below 15 °C. Fog is often visible during the morning and evening but dissipates during the day. From March onwards, the temperature starts to rise, dust storms occur in western Assam, and the northwestern regions bring in occasional thunderstorms.

The showers during this period prevent a rapid rise in temperatures and settle the airborne dust, revitalizing the vegetation after the dry winter. Following the short spring, the southwest monsoon arrives in the third week of June, bringing continuous rainfall interspersed with short dry spells. The atmosphere becomes sultry, with temperatures ranging from 30°C to 35°C. By late September, the monsoon starts to weaken, temperatures decrease, and a short autumn period begins. The sky starts clearing, and mists appear on the horizon. As temperatures fall further, winter sets in from late November.

Assam exhibits slight climatic variations across different regions within the state. For example, the region encompassing Kamrup, Nalbari, and Barpeta in west-central Assam experiences abundant rainfall and foggy winters. The cold season in this region lasts from December to February, followed by sandstorms and thunderstorms from March to May. The rainy season, like the rest of Assam, begins in late June and continues until late September, with October and November representing the post-monsoon period.

In western Assam, including the districts of Goalpara, Bongaigaon, Kokrajhar, and Dhubri, the climate is intermediate between the North Bengal Plains and the west-central Assam Valley.

Read Also : Bihu Festival: Significance, Types, Traditions, and History

April and May exhibit similar day temperatures as during the monsoon months in this region. The Barak Valley districts are characterized by abundant rainfall, moderate temperatures, and high humidity.

The highest temperatures occur during the southwest monsoon, accompanied by ample rainfall and a humid atmosphere throughout the year. Eastern Assam districts such as Golaghat, Jorhat, Sibsagar, Tinsukia, Dibrugarh, Dhemaji, and Lakhimpur share similarities with Darrang and Nagaon, with slightly lower temperatures than the latter regions.

Agro-Climatic Zones

The agricultural industry plays a crucial role in supporting over 75% of Assam’s population, a state located in northeastern India. However, this sector faces significant challenges, primarily related to the risk of floods.

Assam’s agriculture is highly vulnerable to flood-related risks, which not only limit the available time for cultivating crops but also pose increased production risks due to the unpredictable timing, frequency, and intensity of floods.

There are six agro-climatic zones in Assam. They are North Bank Plains Zone (NBPZ), Upper Brahmaputra Valley Zone (UBVZ), Central Brahmaputra Valley Zone (CBVZ), Lower Brahmaputra Valley Zone (LBVZ), Barak Valley Zone (BVZ) and Hills Zone (HZ).

What are the agro climates zone in Assam?

They are North Bank Plains Zone (NBPZ), Upper Brahmaputra Valley Zone (UBVZ), Central Brahmaputra Valley Zone (CBVZ), Lower Brahmaputra Valley Zone (LBVZ), Barak Valley Zone (BVZ) and Hills Zone (HZ).

What type of climate is in Assam?

Assam experiences a “tropical monsoon rainfall climate” characterized by high humidity and substantial precipitation.

What is the average temperature of Assam in winter?

In winter, Assam experiences the lowest temperatures, which can drop to around 6°C. 

What is the highest temperature in Assam?

The highest temperature in Assam is 38 degrees Celsius.

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